Bone Marrow Stimulation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus
Are Clinical Outcomes Maintained 10 Years Later?
Jae Han Park, MD, Kwang Hwan Park, MD, PhD, Jae Yong Cho, MD, Seung Hwan Han, MD, PhD, and Jin Woo Lee, MD, PhD.
Background: Arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation (BMS) is considered the first-line treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs). However, the long-term stability of the clinical success of BMS remains unclear.
Purpose: To investigate the long-term clinical outcomes among patients who underwent BMS for OLT and to identify prognostic factors for the need for revision surgery.
Study design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 202 ankles (189 patients) that were treated with BMS for OLT and had a minimum follow-up of 10 years. The visual analog scale for pain, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, and the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Prognostic factors associated with revision surgery were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard regression models and log-rank tests.
Results: The mean lesion size was 105.32 mm2 (range, 19.75-322.79); 42 ankles (20.8%) had large lesions (≥150 mm2). The mean visual analog scale for pain improved from 7.11 ± 1.73 (mean ± SD) preoperatively to 1.44 ± 1.52, 1.46 ± 1.57, and 1.99 ± 1.67 at 1, 3 to 6, and ≥10 years, respectively, after BMS (P < .001). The mean ankle-hindfoot score also improved, from 58.22 ± 13.57 preoperatively to 86.88 ± 10.61, 86.17 ± 10.23, and 82.76 ± 11.65 at 1, 3 to 6, and ≥10 years after BMS (P < .001). The FAOS at the final follow-up was 82.97 ± 13.95 for pain, 81.81 ± 14.64 for symptoms, 83.49 ± 11.04 for activities of daily living, 79.34 ± 11.61 for sports, and 78.71 ± 12.42 for quality of life. Twelve ankles underwent revision surgery after a mean 53.5 months. Significant prognostic factors associated with revision surgery were the size of the lesion (preoperative magnetic resonance imaging measurement ≥150 mm2; P = .014) and obesity (body mass index ≥25; P = .009).
Conclusion: BMS for OLT yields satisfactory clinical outcomes at a mean follow-up of 13.9 years. The success of the surgery may depend on the lesion size and body mass index of the patient.
Keywords: ankle; arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation; long-term outcomes; osteochondral lesion.